unification of the two Yemeni Republics in in relation to Edward Azar‟s theory of Protracted Social Conflict. The study verifies Azar‟s. 2 See Edward E. Azar, The Management of Protracted Social Conflict. Theory Theory of Protracted Social Conflict and the Challenge of Transforming Conflict. The Management of Protracted Social Conflicts: Theory and Cases. Front Cover. Edward E. Azar. Dartmouth Peace and conflict studies: an introduction.

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This results in the domination of certain identity groups over others. This element, which contributes to the initial creation of protracted social conflict, consists of the fact that people involved in protracted social conflicts create their own identity groups.

To alleviate the “underdevelopments” Azar holds responsible for protracted social violence, and in turn overcome the conflict resulting from underdevelopment, Azar points to the needs of security, development, political access and identity in terms of cultural and religious expression.

The term refers to conflict situations characterized by the prolonged and often violent struggle by communal groups for such basic needs as security, recognition, acceptance, fair access to political institutions, and economic participation. This stage leads to the tangible resolution of the conflict. The ARIA model is a comprehensive, yet specific approach to resolving protracted social conflict. However, it remains a challenge for conflict analysts and peace builders to arrive at an accurate assessment of the actual causes of the conflict for successful resolution and this provokes further analysis of the Rwanda conflict.

With the military coup in the situation erupted into a major crisis.

Protracted social conflict – Wikipedia

Please discuss this issue on the article’s talk page. When a group’s identity is threatened or frustrated, intractable conflict is almost inevitable. To overcome this division of society, national identity must be stressed over individual group identity.

Studying protracted conflict leads one to conclude that peace is development in the broadest sense of the term.

Olson, “From Interest to Identities: Conflict process Dispute resolution Sectarian violence. After parties have articulated their animosities, the next stage is termed the reflexive—reframing stage where the “why” and “who” of the issue is examined.

The majority of Tamils live in northern and eastern provinces and claim them as their traditional homeland.

The Management of Protracted Social Conflicts: Theory and Cases – Edward E. Azar – Google Books

The researcher used the qualitative research approach, through which he was able to find the different facts, opinions, attitudes, and experiences about Rwanda conflicts from different informants in Rwanda through interviews and focus groups discussions.


The resultant disconnection of society and the state can be linked to the colonial legacy, which, “artificially imposed European ideas of territorial statehood onto a multitude of communal groups. At this point, actors begin to see where their identities converge, and where they diverge. This in turn emphasizes Azar’s theory that the “deprivation of human needs is the underlying source of protracted social conflict” where conflict is emphasized by the collective grievances of a group of people.

With government being “endowed with the authority to govern and use force where necessary to regulate society, to protect citizens, and to provide collective goods,” [8] the government plays a leading role in the satisfaction or lack of satisfaction of minority and identity groups. The incidents escalated into a war in Julyafter the island-wide pogrom against Tamils.

Some features of this site may not work without it. This first step focuses on the tangible “what of the conflict. In contrast to the model of interactive conflict resolution ICR that Fisher proposed inwhich includes identity as one of many human needs, the ARIA model “keeps its focus more narrowly attuned to identity issues in particular.

To overcome the dominance of the international economy, the country in question must work to build institutions that can ease global dependency and stimulate domestic economic growth.

Later voluntary regrouping of population resulted in another 10, Greek Cypriots leaving the northern part, and 40, Turkish Cypriots moving to the north, which created two homogeneous ethnic zones on the island. The fourth and final stage of the ARIA model addresses the “why” and “who” of the conflict, as well as the “how” of cooperation through the tangible “what” of solutions.

Journal of Peace Research 38 3— But hostilities continued and even intensified. Metadata Show full item record. The constitution brought a complex system of power-sharingbut cinflict groups wanted to gain more advantages.

Retrieved from ” https: This involves the “political—economic relations of economic dependency within the international economic system, and the network of political-military linkages constituting regional and global patterns of clientage and cross-border interest.

Such a need for structural change is likely to result in a violent conflict. Contemporary Conflict Resolution, The major conflict began with the independence inwhen Greek community wanted a union enosis with Greece, to which the Turkish protrcated opposed.

For example, many states are dependent on an external supply of armament. Among the Sinhalese, the anti-Tamil chauvinism started to spread and the Tamils were more and more disadvantaged and excluded.


Azar argued that the denial of basic human needs to a large portion of the population initiated instances of protracted social violence.

In the northern part declared Turkish Federated State of Cyprus, which declared independence in as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprusrecognized only by Turkey.

This page was last edited on 23 Septemberat Their tactics, proscribed as terrorist by many countries, are ruthless, brutal and highly efficient in eliminating their opposition. In s the southern Republic of Cyprus applied for a membership in the European Unionand the Pdotracted Cypriots on the other side turned to Turkey.

In the Ceasefire agreement was signed, and the government agreed to disarm all paramilitary groups in the north and east. The third stage is termed “inventing” and focuses on the “how” of “cooperatively resolving the conflict and its core through integrative solutions.

Before the independence of Cyprusthe island’s Greek and Turkish communities coexisted relatively peacefully. Such identity-driven rifts are evward result of an underlying fear of extinction that often grows within vulnerable ethnic groups who live with the memories or fear of persecution and massacre.

It generally refers to conflicts described by other researchers as protracted or intractablei.

Protracted social conflict

The structure of the government needs to be changed so that all citizens are equally cared for and equally represented without bias or corruption. This precondition also involves the reliance that many protrcted have on their social groups; because governments in areas that experience protracted social socil are often unable, incapable or unwilling to provide basic human necessities to the population, individuals turn to their social groups for stability.

Protracted social conflict is a technical term in a theory developed by Edward Azar. Numerous peace proposals and plans have been made, but more or less unsuccessful.

Therefore, to be effective, a conflict resolution framework must specifically emphasize the needs and identities of the conflicting parties. It attempts to break down “the barrier of identity through a four-phased process. He terms this approach the ARIA model. This creates a “crisis of legitimacy” [9] in edard governance of these countries.