Results 1 – 16 of 17 A Remedial English Grammar For Foreign Students. 1 January . An Outline History of the English Language. 21 September history and geography. For example, the fact that the English language (or its ancestor) was carried from the continent to the British Isles in the fifth century AD . Buy An Outline History of the English Language by Frederick PDF Online . ISBN from Laxmi Publications. Download Free Sample and.
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The story of English spelling is the story of arrested development, of a fossil form as the visible sign of a much altered speech. There were no silent letters. Johnson’s Dictionary became the standard for spelling as well as literary usage. Scottish literature of the fifteenth century includes the names of Blind Harry and of Henryson, whose Testament of Cresseid was once thought to be Chaucer’s.
Still more were used in English literature, but never became a part of the spoken language. In Charles Butler published his English Gram- mar. Many Celtic names of places were adopted by the English, as of rivers, mountains, even towns and villages. In a similar way he says give-gived, as he learns to say love-loved.
These spoke French, and thus early began the influence of Nor- man French upon English. Some further confusion has even been introduced.
It has also been freely extended to new words. From his time, therefore, a language of literary art came to be recognized, with literary traditions separating it somewhat from the language of prose or ordinary speech.
The first complete Chronicle was also written in Alfred’s reign, though no doubt based on earlier records. In addition, certain long vow- els of earlier Modern English have become more or less diphthongic. Usu- ally, at least, foreign words came in so gradually as to accommodate themselves to native sounds.
On the other hand, the fondness for archaic diction continued to some extent in the early nine- teenth century.
A comparison of won’t with will, from which it is derived, shows that the i sound of the latter has been altered by the preceding w. There are also a few words from French phrases, as adieu’, adroit’, apace’.
Early attempts at reform in English spelling have been noted in the sixteenth century. The reason for their use was often to economize space, as in the lines three and four, in which in the inscription itself there would not have been room for the complete words.
The form resembled y so much that it is often incorrectly read as the latter sound. To fill this gap, OE. The history of vowel sounds is there- fore one of considerable alterations, since our Teutonic forefathers landed in Britain. After Alfred’s death there was a decline of Saxon literature, but it again revived in the last half of the tenth century.
He adds, “Many English writers have not done so, but using strange words, as Latin, French, and Italian, do make all things dark and hard.
Besides, English seems to have been used familiarly at the court of the first Edward He made no conscious choice of one dialect of English, for he used the language of his native city, London. Emphasis of an American standard is espe- cially connected with the name of Noah Webster. When he has learned these, he englsh them engllish all cases. Miduna rated it really liked it Oct 16, For similar reasons the dative also disappeared. This tendency we call analogy, and it has been a large factor in the development of English.
Chastityand Patience. The four sounds were indicated by e and o respectively. Histpry this time Scotland has a literature of its own, side by side with the greater development in England. Thus early the spelling of English was felt to be strangely at variance with pronunci- ation.
An Outline History of the English Language : Frederick T. Wood :
Even Caxton was surprised at the difference between the language of Chaucer and that of his own age. These may be treated under various heads. But words of Latin origin usually gave up their stress for that of English. By the opposite change one of two similar conso- nants becomes dissimilar, A second r has become 1, as in marble, purple, from marbre, purpre. It first added grammatical relations of words, and paid special attention to careful definitions.
Thus Roger Ascham, in his Toxophiluswould have men write as the common pf speak. In them, however, a new factor entered. Yet the beginnings of what may be considerable differences in speech f.twood be found. Several consonants served for two or more sounds.
An Outline History of the English Language
The older Northumbrian is now called Northern. Unstressed elements at the beginning of words have also vanished entirely.
As in Old English, these changes were most rapid in the north and least so in the south. This has followed the growth of the British Em- pire and the American nation, and, to a less degree, the extension of trade and travel. This, in its turn, has also disappeared. In different dialects there was still further lack of uniformity.
Such dates, of course, mark no violent changes. Mutation examples may be arranged under the various vowels of their present forms, without regard to those of Old English: A second hisfory of critics regarded the fashion of borrowing words as a corruption of speech. Long con- sonants were usually doubled, though eg were used for gg.
In English, with its fixed and unphonetic spell- ing, even written forms have affected pronuncia- tion, especially of learned f.t.woodd.